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European Colonizers Killed So Many Indigenous People The Planet Cooled Down

Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and His Troops by Emanuel Leutze


Between the intentional murders and deadly diseases brought by European colonizers, 90% off the indigenous populations in the Americas were killed. The death of over 55 million indigenous melanated people cooled the planet down.

I wonder why this was never mentioned in our history books.

Maybe because someone thought it was bad enough America is already known for instituting, managing, and expanding the longest and most brutal forms of human slavery the planet has ever seen.

When you add in how white people killed so many indigenous melanated people that the planet cooled down, there’s no way to see America as “great” ever again. That’s probably why they left this part out.

According to a report on

“European contact brought with it not only war and famine, but also diseases like smallpox that decimated local populations. In fact, a February 2019 study published in the journal Quarternary Science Reviews shows that those deaths occurred on such a large scale that they led to a “Little Ice Age”: an era of global cooling between the 16th and mid-19th century.

Researchers from University College London found that, after the rapid population decline, large swaths of vegetation and farmland were abandoned. The trees and flora that repopulated that unmanaged farmland started absorbing more carbon dioxide and keeping it locked in the soil, removing so much greenhouse gas from the atmosphere that the planet’s average temperature dropped by 0.15 degrees Celsius.”

An illustration of Christopher Columbus arriving in North America in 1492. Gergio Deluci/Courtesy of L. Prang & Co., Boston/Wikimedia Commons


(Source: – European colonizers killed so many indigenous Americans that the planet cooled down, a group of researchers concluded)

  • Following Christopher Columbus’ arrival in North America in 1492, violence and disease killed 90% of the indigenous population — nearly 55 million people — according to a study published this year.
  • Diseases like smallpox, measles, and influenza, which colonizers brought to the Americas, were responsible for many millions of deaths.
  • The new research also reveals that following this rapid population decline and the subsequent reduction in land use, there was a global cooling trend.


Black History Month: The Afro-Indigenous—Native Amerikans with Afrikan ancestry

Radmilla Cody, a Diné and African American Grammy-nominated, Nammy-winning singer from the Navajo Nation.

It is fitting to open Black History Month by exploring the long history of relationships between and among the indigenous people of this land with African Americans. Many tribal nations, especially on the East Coast, have members of African ancestry. This should come as no surprise. From the time the first British colonists and settlers arrived and instituted African enslavement, there was contact and intermarriage between slaves, free men, and free women with the original owners of this land—who were themselves under attack and threatened with genocide.

Crispus Attucks is a name most people learned in American History class. Attucks was killed during the Boston Massacre, and is believed to be the first casualty of the American Revolution. Attucks is most often identified as black in American history textbooks, which obscures his native heritage.

Crispus Attucks, Memorial portrait, bust, facing left. "The brave soldier of the Revolutionary War,

Crispus Attucks (1723 – 1770) was an enslaved man born in South Framingham of African and Native American parents. His father, Prince Yonger, was thought to have been a slave brought to America from Africa and his mother Nancy Attucks was a Natick Indian. Attucks was a direct descendant of John Attucks, an Indian killed in King Philip’sPaul Cuffee War in 1676.

The Naticks are now known as “The Praying Indians,” whom Daily Kos’ Ojibwa has written about in-depth in his “Indians 101” series.

From that same era, we also celebrate Paul Cuffee. Henry Louis Gates writes:

The person who spearheaded “the first, black initiated ‘back to Africa’ effort in U.S. history,” according to the historian Donald R. Wright, was also the first free African American to visit the White House and have an audience with a sitting president. He was Paul Cuffee, a sea captain and an entrepreneur who was perhaps the wealthiest black American of his time.

Cuffee was born on Cuttyhunk Island, off Southern Massachusetts, on Jan. 17, 1759, and died on Sept. 7, 1817. He was one of 10 children of a freed slave, a farmer named Kofi Slocum. (“Kofi” is a Twi word for a boy born on Friday, so we know that he was an Ashanti from Ghana.) Kofi Anglicized his name to “Cuffee.”

Paul’s mother was Ruth Moses, a Wampanoag Native American. He ended up marrying a member of the Pequot tribe from Martha’s Vineyard, Alice Pequit.

What’s interesting about both Attacks and Cuffee is that their indigenous ancestry and tribal affiliations have been virtually erased over time. Yet the descendants of these long ago marriages live on, and many other tribes have swelled with intermixings, black and Native American, over the centuries.

Due to the African ancestry of many of its members, the Shinnecock Nation of New York has had a long fight with federal gatekeepers over who is or is not Indian.

The Shinnecock were among the thirteen Indian bands loosely based on kinship on Long Island, which were named by their geographic locations, but the people were highly decentralized. “The most common pattern of indigenous life on Long Island prior to their slaughter by the Europeans was the autonomous village linked by kinship to its neighbors.” They were related and politically subject to the Pequot and Narragansett, the more powerful Algonquian tribes of southern New England across Long Island Sound. The Shinnecock are believed to have spoken a dialect of Mohegan-Pequot-Montauk, similar to their neighbors the Montaukett on Long Island. As is the case with many North Eastern tribes after the establishment of reservations, the Shinnecock language was not allowed to be spoken in schools, or off of the reservation. This caused a decline in the number of people who spoke the language, however, the tribe is actively engaged in language renewal programs to secure the legacy of the language for future generations.

Though their history stretches back into the mists of time, their battle for federal recognition didn’t end until 2010, when the Shinnecock finally became the 565th federally acknowledged tribe.

In “Reservations,” the New Yorker’s Ariel Levy wrote about tensions in the Hamptons between the white elite Hamptons glitterati and the original Long Island inhabitants.

Long Island’s Native Americans have been marrying African-Americans since the seventeenth century, when the Dutch started bringing slaves into New York. John Strong, the premier historian of Native Americans on Long Island, told me, “Slave status was defined by law in terms of the woman—a child becomes the property of the mother’s owner. If you’re a slave and you want to make sure your children are free, you marry an Indian woman.” But if slave status was defined by maternity, racial status was defined by color. “If the father was black and the mother was Indian, or vice versa, and the child comes forward with a claim to Native American identity, the white arbiters say, ‘Oh, no, you can’t jump up a notch in the hierarchy—you’re black,’ ” Strong said. “When I came here, in ’65, you’d go in any of the local bars and they would talk about the Shinnecocks as ‘monigs’: more nigger than Indian.” It’s a slur that you still sometimes hear in the Hamptons.

Doina Badescu@DoinaBadescu

Shinnecock Indians American 1865

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The Shinnecocks’ group-mindedness has been reinforced by the process of applying for federal recognition, which entails an exhaustive inquiry into who belongs to the tribe. The B.I.A. requires proof that every person listed as a tribe member is the direct descendant of someone who lived on the reservation in 1865. According to the tribe’s own policy, babies born to Shinnecock mothers are automatically included on the tribal roll. But if a baby’s parents are unmarried and only the father is Shinnecock the child is ineligible for enrollment. “There’s a saying,” Fred Bess told me. “Mama’s baby, Papa’s maybe.”

The question of legitimacy has been particularly vexed, because most members of the tribe do not look the way American Indians are expected to look. “That’s what this whole federal-recognition process has been about,” Roberta O. Hunter, a Shinnecock lawyer, told me. “Are you who you say you are? Are you really authentic?” Hunter majored in anthropology at Bennington, and she said that in the twenties scholars got “interested in the ‘red man’ and the ‘vanishing race,’ and everybody raced out West.” The academics, she suggested, were in pursuit of motion-picture Indians. “Those stereotypes of who’s an Indian and who isn’t an Indian, those were based on all those groups west of the Mississippi. I don’t look anything like that,” Hunter, who has dark skin and kinky hair, said.

Suede Santoro 👣@suede_santoro

Shinnecock Native American woman of Long Island, NY (Lost Files)

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Federal recognition has not decreased the Shinnecocks’ conflicts with their Hamptons neighbors. It even became food for satire on The Daily Show in 2019.

The Shinnecock Indian Nation’s recent controversial construction of an electronic monument in Hampton Bays got the Comedy Central treatment in a satirical segment that aired this week on The Daily Show with Trevor Noah.

Comic correspondent Michael Kosta braved Hamptons traffic in August to interview Shinnecock Chairman Bryan Polite, who can’t contain his laughter when told that Hamptonites find the ad-revenue-generating monument on the side of Sunrise Highway to be an attack on their way of life.

“How much of this monument is economic development and how much of it is kind of a f*** you to the people of Southampton?” Kosta asks. Polite replies, “I think it’s a little bit of both.”



Members of Tribal nations from across the NE and progressive groups stood in solidarity with the Shinnecock Indian Nation on Tuesday to urge Southampton Town to pass legislation protecting the tribe’s sacred burial area in Shinnecock Hills. 

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Also on the East Coast, is the Nation whose members included Paul Cuffee’s mother—the Mashpee Wampanoags. They too have been engaged in battle with the federal government, most recently with the Trump administration.

Their fight for sovereignty sparked a #StandWithMashpee hashtag in 2018.

Manilan Houle@ManilanH

Imagine surviving over 400 years of cultural assimilation, boarding schools, disease, murder, and genocide only to have the President of the United States Suggest that you are not valid.

That is what Donald Trump with the support of Republicans are doing.

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The struggle continues.

Rebecca Nagle@rebeccanagle

Just a reminder that the Trump admin terminated the reservation of the TRIBE THAT WELCOMED THE PILGRIMS saying the didn’t meet the legal definition of “Indian” and instead of helping Congress has turned it into a partisan battle.

Rebecca Nagle@rebeccanagle

On the Trump admins ruling to take the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe’s land out of trust: 

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The Nation’s Aviva Chomsky examines the white purity police further in “DNA Tests Make Native Americans Strangers in Their Own Land: Reviving race science plays into centuries of oppression.”

The ancestry industry, even while celebrating diverse origins and multiculturalism, has revived long-held ideas about purity and authenticity. For much of US history, white colonizers argued that Native Americans would “vanish,” at least in part through biological dilution. New England’s native peoples were, for instance, systematically denied land rights and tribal status in the 19th century on the grounds that they were too racially mixed to be “authentic” Indians.

As historian Jean O’Brien has explained, “Insistence on ‘blood purity’ as a central criterion of ‘authentic’ Indianness reflected the scientific racism that prevailed in the 19th century. New England Indians had intermarried, including with African Americans, for many decades, and their failure to comply with non-Indian ideas about Indian phenotype strained the credence for their Indianness in New England minds.” The supposed “disappearance” of such Indians then justified the elimination of any rights that they might have had to land or sovereignty, the elimination of which, in a form of circular reasoning, only confirmed their nonexistence as a people.

However, it was never phenotype or distant ancestry but, as O’Brien points out, “complex regional kinship networks that remained at the core of Indian identity in New England, despite the nearly complete Indian dispossession that English colonists accomplished… Even as Indians continued to reckon membership in their communities through the time-honored system of kinship, New Englanders invoked the myth of blood purity as identity in denying Indian persistence.”

Scholastic Magazine produced a teaching video for first graders on “the Wampanoag Way,” which does not erase who Wampanoag are.

The Wampanoag are a Native American tribe from the northeastern United States. They were there when the Pilgrims arrived in 1620 and they are still there today.

There are too many related issues to cover in just one story. The fate of the descendants of slaves held by the “Five Civilized Tribes,” many of whom are also descended from those who owned them, requires its own space. This struggle also raised issues of “anti-blackness” in those communities. 

In 2017, the Cherokee Freedmen finally won their citizenship battle with the current tribal leadership.



Judge Rules That Cherokee Freedmen Have Right To Tribal Citizenship 

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I wrote about some maroon communities, often dubbed “tri-racial isolates,” among them the Lumbee of North Carolina in “Slippin’ into whiteness: Melungeons and other ‘almost white’ groups.

Hattie Hammonds, PhD@nubian0304

Excellent article about my tribe’s continued quest for federal recognition.

What makes someone Native American? One tribe’s long struggle for full recognition. – The Washington Post 

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The Lumbee continue to fight a seemingly endless battle for federal recognition, as The Washington Post reported in 2018.

Her birth certificate says she’s Indian, as did her first driver’s license. Both of her parents were required to attend segregated tribal schools in the 1950s and ’60s. In Nakai’s hometown in Robeson County, N.C., strangers can look at the dark ringlets in her hair, hear her speak and watch her eyes widen when she’s indignant, and know exactly who her mother and father are. “Who’s your people?” is a common question in Robeson, allowing locals to pinpoint their place among the generations of Lumbee who have lived in the area for nearly 300 years.

Yet in the eyes of the BIA, the Lumbee have never been Indian enough. Responding to Nakai the following month, tribal government specialist Chandra Joseph informed her that the Lumbee were not a federally recognized tribe and therefore couldn’t receive any federal benefits, including “Indian preference.” Invoking a 1956 law concerning the status of the Lumbee, Joseph wrote: “The Lumbee Act precludes the Bureau from extending any benefits to the Indians of Robeson and adjoining counties.” She enclosed a pamphlet titled “Guide to Tracing Indian Ancestry.”

Many black families refer to ancestral kin who were Cherokee, oftentimes with no proof. In a recent, rather obstreperous Twitter discussion on this issue that I won’t link here, it was pointed out that most of these families have no interest in claiming to actually be Indigenous themselves; instead, being “part Cherokee” is a way to explain away photos of “great-grandma with the long straight hair,” rather than face the traumatic reality of the long history of black women in this country being raped (and bred) by owners, overseers and other white men.

Shifting to the Southwest, and more recent history, I discovered the story of Radmilla Cody several years ago, while reading my friend Ajijaakwe’s blog. Aji featured her for Women’s History Month.

We begin today with Radmilla Cody, GRAMMY-nominated, NAMMY-winning singer from the Navajo Nation. And I do mean “singer” in the fullest Indian sense of the word.

Diné and African American, Ms. Cody has a special perspective on what it means to be a multiracial woman straddling multiple cultures and lifeways, one that I understand (in some ways, all too well). She’s a survivor of domestic violence, another issue that is close to my heart for many reasons, and she has become a fierce anti-domestic violence activist. She also does what I will never be able to do if I live to be a thousand: Sing. In the most hauntingly beautiful voice.

Journalist Garth Cartwright’s interview with Radmilla Cody digs even deeper.

“Flagstaff’s a conservative town and I have three strikes against me. Firstly, I’m a felon. Secondly I’m a woman. Third strike, I’m Native and black.’

Brief resume: born of a teenage Navajo mother and African American father, Radmilla Cody was raised on the Navajo Nation Reservation by her grandmother, Dorothy Cody, initially speaking only Dine (as the Navajo call themselves – Navajo is a Pueblo Indian term bestowed on these people when they settled the South West half millennia ago – and their language). Across two albums recorded for Phoenix Native music specialists Canyon Records she’s marked herself out as a distinctive Native voice…

Radmilla describes a childhood spent herding sheep on foot and horseback, carding and spinning wool, searching late into the night with grandmother for lost sheep and lambs. Sounds idyllic. Not so, says Radmilla. ‘’Things weren’t easy. My Mom was eighteen when I was born and was away living her life while my dad wasn’t ‘round at all. Being mixed race I attracted a lot of racial abuse. Kids were always teasing me about it; black kids doing war whoops and saying all Indians were drunk. Indian kids calling me “nigger”. I never took sides when people were rude; I stood up for Navajos and for African Americans. I’m not bitter about this. It hurt, yes, but I’ve put all these incidents behind me. My grandmother has been a great teacher. She raised me planting corn, shearing sheep, gathering water from the well. Living this life you take on tasks and responsibilities which teach you life lessons urban existence can’t.’

State Voices@state_voices

“I come from two beautiful cultures which I have embraced, bridged, balanced, and identify with. I am proud to be who I am as a Diné (Navajo) and Nahilii (African American) woman.” —@radmillacody

Love to all the Afro-Indigenous people in the world.

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Cody is also the subject of a documentary film, “Hearing Radmilla,” produced and directed by Angela Webb.

I salute those whose ancestry is both Native and Naahilii.

*The term Naahilii is a new term that was passed down to Radmilla from a Dine’ practitioner when she inquired about a more positive, respectful, and empowering term to identify those whom she is born for, the African Americans. The following is the Dine’ description of the term Naahilii / Nahilii: “Na(a)” – Those who have come across. “hil (slash in the l)” – dark, calm, have overcome, persevered and we have come to like. “ii” – oneness.

As Black History Month begins, join me in honoring those whose ancestry is both Native and Naahilii!

Next Sunday I’ll be exploring the world of Afro-Puerto Ricans.

This content was created by a Daily Kos Community member.


source: Black History Month: The Afro-Indigenous—Native Americans with African ancestry

Why Don’t We Raise the RBG Flag?

Why don’t we raise the RBG flag? The answer, quite simply, is because we raise the Red Flag of Revolution. The red, black and green flag designed by Marcus Garvey has been popularly adopted to represent Black nationalism in Amerika. People may ask, “Don’t you believe Black people have been constituted as a nation within the U.S.?”

Yes, we do, specifically in the “Black Belt” South under the post-slavery conditions of neo-feudalism (share-cropping) and “Jim Crow” segregation. We also believe that the U.S. was constituted as a “white” nation under the conditions of colonization, genocide, slavery and racial segregation. But as Huey P. Newton pointed out, the U.S. has ceased to a nation and has become a globe-reaching empire, which makes it impossible for other nations to have an independent existence.

If the Black (New Afrikan) Nation can no longer meet the criteria to be a nation, and colonizationnational independence is precluded by Empire’s global domination, then what is the path to Black liberation? It is World Proletarian Socialist Revolution, which will create a world without borders and nation states, based upon revolutionary people’s power and the leadership of the world proletariat.

The World has become too small for independent nation states, and too advanced for capitalist-imperialism and private ownership of the means of production. Capitalism has made itself obsolete, and it needs to be swept aside in the interests of humanity.

Nations and nationalism belong to a specific time period in history, the period of rising capitalism and throwing off the yoke of feudal oppression. As Stalin pointed out, “The national question is essentially a peasant question.” The peasant’s demand for land and liberation from feudal oppression is championed by the rising bourgeoisie who establish their borders and claim a monopoly on the use of force within them, and the exclusive right to exploit the natural resources and labor power of the proletarians within those borders, as well as the right to levy, enact laws and conscript soldiers.

But as imperialism develops, the national bourgeoisie are superseded by and subordinated to the imperialist bourgeoisie, which increasingly becomes transnational. Formerly independent nation states are converted to junior partners in global imperialism or dependent neo-colonial puppet regimes. The path to liberation thus switches from national liberation to overthrowing Empire and creating global revolutionary intercommunalism as a stepping stone to global classless society.

There cannot be a “Black revolution,” simply because there is only one monopoly ruling class oppressing everyone on the planet, and it is in everybody’s interest to overthrow them and seize control over the means of production from them. The world proletariat is black, brown and white, in essence, it has no nationality, no gender. The proletariat is all of us who must sell our labor power to the capitalists for less than it is worth. It is also the “Last Class in History,” because it is its historic destiny to liberate itself by ending the division of society into exploiting and exploited classes.

The proletariat’s flag is red, for revolution, and for the blood of slaves, serfs and workers shed over centuries in struggle against oppression and for liberation. Realizing that nationalism is now a dead end, why would we want to promote it? Revolution belongs to the people – ALL THE PEOPLE – who dare to be free. As Malcolm X put it;

 “I believe that there will be ultimately be a clash between the oppressed and those who do the oppressing. I believe that there will be a clash between those who want freedom, justice and equality for everyone and those who want to continue the system of exploitation. I believe that there will be that kind of clash, but I don’t think it will be based on the color of the skin…”

Malcolm X also said: “You can’t operate a capitalistic system unless you are vulturistic; you have to have someone else’s blood to suck to be a capitalist. You show me a capitalist, I’ll show you a bloodsucker… It is impossible for capitalism to survive, primarily because the system of capitalism needs some blood to suck. Capitalism used to be like an eagle, but now it’s more like a vulture. It used to be strong enough to go and suck anybody’s blood whether they were strong or not. But now it has become more cowardly, like the vulture, and it can only suck the blood of the helpless. As the nations of the world free themselves, the capitalism has less victims, less to suck, and it becomes weaker and weaker. It’s only a matter of time in my opinion before it will collapse completely.”



2020 Here we go again

“Imperialism Destroying the Entire World to Enrich a Tiny Few” – Art: Kevin “Rashid” Johnson, 264847, Pendleton Correctional Facility, G-20-2C, 4490 W. Reformatory Road, Pendleton, IN 46064

by Shaka Shakur

This isn’t a system that is broken. This is a system that does exactly what it was built and designed to do and that is to oppress, to kontrol, to destroy, to facilitate genocide and national oppression under the guise of maintaining law and order. Within the history of amerikkka, when has maintaining law and order not meant the victimizing, the lynching, the murdering, the castrating and destroying of Black and Brown bodies?

All of my life I’ve been in prison. I’ve never felt free in this kountry or this society. As a New Afrikan man and as part of an oppressed nation, all I’ve ever felt and known is oppression, struggle and resistance.

I get tired of hearing how the system is broken when it comes to the so call kkkriminal (in)justice system. That all We need is to put someone in office that is going to do the right thing, who is fair, who cares, who is progressive, who is a Democrat etc. Can We please stop?! Can We plz get off of this every two-year, four-year merry-go-round?

There is no falling through the cracks in the system for us. We are shoved through holes, into holds … like modern day holds of slave ships. Stacked in cells on tiers and so-called pods, the racks in the belly and hulls of ships sailing across the Atlantic Ocean.

As a 16-year-old kid, given a 30-year sentence for attempted robbery, I used to think that maybe I just fell through the cracks, that I could have been saved as a kid and rehabilitated. Then I was educated, then my consciousness was raised and I realized that it wasn’t meant for me to be saved or rehabilitated.

It was meant for me and other boys and girls, men and women to be victims of the school-to-prison pipeline. To be modern day chattel that big businesses and the state make huge profits off of. That it was meant for my Black body to become a commodity that is traded on Wall Street with other shares, stocks and bonds. You see it’s the system that needs to be rehabilitated, to be revolted against.

Seriously, how is it that in 2019, We can live in a kountry where over 2 million of its inhabitants are under some form of captivity, where people of color disproportionately represent those held under these conditions and it’s not a national outrage? It’s not an outrage because Black life has no value in amerika other than for profit.

Kapitalism must have people and classes’ labor to exploit in order for it to survive as a system. It must kolonize women and try to control their bodies and ability to reproduce in order to survive as a system. A system of domination, of exploitation, of control, of selfishness, of me first, of GENOCIDE and wage slavery … while creating the mirage of freedom through that of privilege and vulgar materialism.

If We want to agitate and try to rally the people around popular issues and put some of these politricians (like magicians who make the truth disappear) on the defense, why don’t We call for the repeal of the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA) and the Anti-Death Penalty Act that was passed under the kkklinton administration during the 1994-96 era of kkkrime bills and so-called anti-terrorism bills?


These laws shut the doors on tens of thousands of prisoners for federal habeas review, appeals, introduction of newly discovered evidence. Laws that disproportionately affected poor folks and people of color sitting in these kkkoncentration kkkamps and on genocide/death row.

These are laws that the Obama administration refused to repeal while giving lip service to the negative impact the kkklinton policies had on mass incarceration and New Afrikans. Had these laws been repealed, it would have saved the lives and opened the door for thousands of Us, even more so than the bait and switch done around the crack and cocaine laws.

For people, groups, movements that support engaging with these mainstream politricians and this 2020 neo-kolonial bourgeois democracy electoral process, perhaps this is a position, issue, question that can be pushed. Where do you stand on repealing these laws? You claim to want to address and rectify the impact of these laws on Us and so-called mass incarceration, then do something other than window dressing and cosmetic changes.

New Afrikan Revolutionary Nationalist and New Afrikan Communist forces KNOW that “mass incarceration” is just a euphemism, a code word for national oppression, for genocide, for ethnic cleansing. This is what imperialisms does, people. It socially kontrols its perceived threat populace, this is even more so with leaps in technological development and the escalating threat of disposability confronting the New Afrikan “working klass.”

As the empire becomes more ethnically diverse and the eurocentric settler population has nightmares of minority status and loss of privilege … All throughout the course of Our story and Our national contact with the settler imperialist state, they have carried out all kinds of policies and practices, from medical experiments to outright murder designed to kontrol, regulate, instill fear, prevent rise of movements, leadership, etc. The state and its representatives have always had lofty names and acronyms but when it’s all said and done, people, it is a result of Our national oppression, Our current and historical relationship to the state, the denial of the right to self-determination as people.

The attempt by various elements to make Our struggle about so-called “race” is an attempt to confuse and distract. We who represent the New Afrikan Independence Movement (NAIM) are clear it’s about opposing kolonialism and imperialism in any form.

We as a people have a particular historical development and relationship to the u.s. government. Our means of production and ability to produce and be self-determining has been seized. The bulk of Our people were and are dispersed throughout the empire, forced into refugee status out of the National Territory of the South, on land where Our people and ancestors slaved, bled, died and fought wars of INDEPENDENCE. Land and territory where, as a result of government policies, Our people were terrorized and genocided out of, just as they did the Native Indigenous Nations all over this north amerikan continent.

They ethnic cleansed whole nations and populations then as they do today and could have used the same terminology then that they use today. You can substitute a donald trump for an andrew jackson and it’s essentially the same policies and practices. New Afrikans, Native Americans, Mexicans … the names and euphemisms change, but the policies, historical relationships and oppression remain the same.

You do not amend a people into a kkkonstitution and impose second klass citizenship on Us. You do not imprison Political Prisoners of War for 40 and 50 years because they engaged in political acts, resistance or political dissent … if it was simply about so-called “race.” No, the government carried and carries out such acts of national repression when a nation of people has a particular historical and political relationship to the oppressive state.

These acts of terror and repression are not the acts of bad apples and bad people. These are government policies and military strategies and tactics being carried out and implemented by those who represent and pledge allegiance to the imperialist united states empire.

Again, we aren’t confused and remain clear.

All Power to the People!!


Shaka Shakur on behalf of NALC

Send our brother some love and light: Shaka Shakur, 1996207, Sussex SP 1B-33, 24414 Musselwhite Dr., Waverly VA 23890.


Ancient Eugenicists

Ancient Eugenicists
Ancient Eugenicists

Ancient Egyptians were not Asians, nor aliens.

“Genocide might indeed be a worse demon of our nature.”

When black civilisation was destroyed first time round there was little to show for its former glories apart from squat noses and thick lips on statues and other artworks that invading lighter folks successively reduced. After all, if writing is confined to a priestly caste in immobile temples it is hard for it to remain a concern when there are sea peoples, the Hyksos, Cambyses or Alexander on your tail; let alone Jihadists on their way to the Iberian peninsula. Neither do papyrus scrolls keep well in the deserts nor rainforests nor savannahs depending on which compass direction you chose to flee. I would imagine too that tablets become rather heavy especially when they have to compete with a basket of provisions on the limited space that is one’s head.

Jared Diamond is probably right that this unfolding of events has more to do with latitude than attitude. Otherwise Yali’s valid question remains: if mankind evolved in Africa and civilization not so far from it (within an Africa “Minor” in a different manner of looking at the same familiar things), why didn’t “black” people go on to bring about globalization in this recent instance?

If the roles were reversed, however, I am not sure quarter would be given either as incidents of counter-racist racism demonstrate. Come to think of it, when homo sapiens sapiens overran Eurasia from Africa, I doubt that lesser higher primates were tickled into extinction. Genocide might indeed be a worse demon of our nature.Browner people aren’t less racist. We just haven’t had as many opportunities to demonstrate it spectacularly as these darker demons of our nature did in Rwanda not so long ago. I fear that genocide is a base tendency and that we must continually strive to educate ourselves and each other in order to seek out the humanity in the “other” if we are to co-exist on this spaceship hurtling through the void.

“Papyrus scrolls keep well in the deserts nor rainforests nor savannahs.”

As a corollary though, human beings seem to possess an instinctive fear of group annihilation. Perhaps we intuitively recognize that we create and destroy the future; that we have this power today, are supermen now as we live, in contrast with Nietzsche’s unborn supermen of tomorrow. Hence we huddle together according to our petty little distinguishing characteristics. Perhaps indeed hate must be allowed to be expressed as freedom of speech, if only to identify opportunities to educate, if at all this is practical. However, reading daily depredations on minorities all over the world I dread that even education may not be enough to rein in our prejudices. Yet, in order for the ideal of multiculturalism to maintain its legitimacy, it must be presented as not only possible but inevitable. There is no alternative.

Multiculturalism is an unintended consequence of the actions of the class that initiated it for its own benefits. Cultural imperialism was a loyal bedfellow of the more vicious naked capitalism. A lowly class European would become an upper class colonial; those subjects who could afford to travel to the core from their periphery would enter at the bottom no matter their status back home and claw themselves up, sometimes over generations. A process that usually involved a form of physical “whitening” too.

Having destroyed the superstructures of browner people wherever they might have been (often with the excuse that this was in subject peoples’ own interests, especially if they happened to live on top of a pile of wealth), doesn’t the Chinese adage about saving someone’s life apply? So the west should now be responsible for our destiny? (H*ll no!) Thus immigration is blowback from colonialism much as we prefer to hang around together with people just like us. Frequently, though, the individual destinies of migrants can be quite bright for some of them in their new homelands.

“In order for the ideal of multiculturalism to maintain its legitimacy, it must be presented as not only possible but inevitable.”

Even after black societies were decimated the second time around there are still some ancient societal markers – like matrilineality, circumcision, libation, initiation, rites of passage, burial rites, totemism, secret societies, ritual hand-clapping and so on – there to remind anyone who cares to scratch a little below appearances that ancient Egyptians were not Asians, nor aliens and certainly did not vanish into thin air. Recent goings-on in Sudan are a mere microcosm of what has been playing out over the past few millennia: brown people to the north, black people to the south: south and getting more southern. Reggae dub poet Mutabaruka puts it thus: “brown and nearly white” a kind of racial gentrification. That a situation similar to the one in North Africa also played out in the Indian subcontinent over millennia should reinforce suspicions that this is not a local aberration however calamitous it may be. Post Hillarian Libyan butchery of African trans-Saharan migrants sadly reminds us too of this pathetic intrinsic racism of ours.

Decades after its main visible and vocal (but very far from being the only) proponents were militarily delegitimized, the Aryan theory of racial origins remains deeply entrenched in areas of academia. Hollywood still hasn’t got the meme.

Once black scholarship shrugs off the oppressive blinkers of western intellectual colonialism there will be much to marvel at and keep us occupied for the next few centuries (if there is still a planet remaining). The African continent – so long as it remains relatively un-degraded and unpolluted by any “green” revolution – is relatively warm and gentle which may impact our psyches: therefore we will not be returning any genocidal disfavors any time soon even if we could. There should be enough planet to go around. Which happens to be one of the tenets of my favorite ideology – umunthu – some sort of loosely defined “humanism.”

“Immigration is blowback from colonialism.”

Once the process of decolonizing the African mind from the alienation of Eurocentricity reaches more advanced stages, African “problems” take on a new light. African priorities do not necessarily coterminate with “global” priorities. One cannot return from peering over the precipice of annihilation and join an ill-conceived there-is-no-alternative project of triumphalist progress towards some unknown Valhalla. Certainly not when the bees are dying and sperm counts are dropping. Some consider colonization as a benign evil. Leopold II’s panga gangs were once-off, not the norm, and in the collective black interest for those of us who survived. The bliss of the blue pill. History is less comforting.

There is much to remind of the ignorance about slavery such as that displayed by Kim Kardashian’s husband some time ago. For every “body” that made it across the middle passage, one – give or take – was eaten by shark, another by hyena on the way to the coast and yet another killed at the village protecting another or resisting. Whose choice? Certainly not that of those enslaved. I call the what-about-the-brother-who-sold-you argument the “pedophilic stance” or “she lubricated hence it can’t have been rape” excuse. History ain’t cute. I wouldn’t know but I am sure even pedophiles somehow justify their actions to at least themselves.

“African priorities do not necessarily coterminate with ‘global’ priorities.”

The Chinese decreed only castrated black male slaves were to be allowed into their domain, thus they are yet to have a multicultural “problem” in their heartland.

Some “black skins, white masks” adulatingly point out the few benefits that pax occidentia accords my particular caste – the African one percent – and contrasts our preferential status with the presumed dreadful alternative that is the home village that each one of us has and is not too distant from, certainly not in spirit. Indeed small minds must. There is no other sane alternative for a mind jaded by western education, religion and media: Leopold’s intentions were grand, the methods were just crude as all method were at the time.

Whatever his stated or unstated intentions were – riding on the back of a cure for malaria and an industrial revolution that no longer required free slave labor – Livingstone cannot have been unaware of the consequences, intended or not, of the European “discovery” of Australia and the Americas on the indigenous populations and, by extrapolation, which were also likely to be the consequences on the newly “discovered” Africans of the interior. History happened. Africa could have got it worse. It was the economy, stupid. Capitalism emerged victorious in the Darwinian struggle. Save that Capitalism doesn’t take into account a finite Earth and any qualms of concerned individuals who may fear an end is in sight but lack armies to turn back the herds of lemmings.

I struggle to see the “other” in European savagery, however tempting it is to wallow in that particular rut of intellectual indolence. At the risk of apologizing for a crime that didn’t happen and Black Africans didn’t commit, I cling to the hope that Soyinka’s Muse of Forgiveness exists. I have to believe that we are all human hence fallible. The alternative may only be an unimaginable fury; an eternal Salvador Dalian cosmic combat as encapsulated in his Poetry of America. On repeat. Ad infinum. Till planetary destruction do us part.

“I cling to the hope that Soyinka’s Muse of Forgiveness exists.”

As palliative as it temporaneously may be, monopolizing the indignation of victimhood is parochial.

Genocide or ethnic cleansing persists to this day because it works many times: the crimes are committed and history obediently ignores them. Unless we acknowledge this then we shall struggle to do what’s necessary to stop it. We cannot apply selective indignation to Rohingya Muslims but not other “unpeople.”

The western encounter between theirscholarship and indigenous peoples’ otherness like totemism has been, well, alienating. Probably to serve capitalism in the first instance which should come as no surprise really. For anyone to have the means and leisure to travel the world and wonder and write like Darwin did, was because he belonged to a slave dealing caste without having to be directly involved, regardless of how much he is said to have abhorred the practice. More often than not, successive generations of western intellectual jihadists saw no European in the “other.” I can’t blame them then. I can fault us now.

An ancient time-traveler encountering the modern sports of soccer and tennis might be excused for drawing fantastical conclusions but entirely missing the point. Stadia are places of worship where the faithful gather to urge on gladiators belonging to priestly athletic sects who are then publicly humiliated if their sect loses. The biggest of such rituals are broadcast real time to billions of avid worshippers who will shun even their close family members during the ritual.

“More often than not, successive generations of western intellectual jihadists saw no European in the ‘other.’”

The degree of trepidation in which the phenomenon of albinism (and until recently in some parts even that of twins) is and was held in traditional African society leads me to surmise that the genetic link could not have gone unnoticed. Before we rule this out as beyond the “savage” mind let us remind ourselves that human ancestors applied an unwritten scientific approach in their development of agriculture and livestock farming. Neither did they overlook cretinism due to inbreeding when they designed incest taboos and other taboos.

An albino family member can be a burden. Malawi classifies albinos as persons with disability. As a society we may have had an ancient mechanism of reducing the burden of albinism on ourselves and future generations by checking the probability of occurrence, by accident or by design. It is totemism.

Western scholarship often assumes others’ lack of agency. How could “they” be agents when progress clearly passed them by? Eurocentricity requires objects, dull lifeless ones. Not subjects with agency whose acts of observation (by outsiders who are dispassionate and objective of course) might actually influence observed behavior, a kind of anthropological uncertainty principle. Hand in hand with this static view of what are actually dynamic societies, a second bias is the trap of assuming unintelligent design. What can be unintelligent about the series of initiation rites to which members of traditional African society undergo that secures their place in society and mental well being despite centuries of holocaust? Imperfect, undoubtedly, but the results of generations of accumulated wisdom that could fill many decent libraries with dissertations. The sociology and psychology of these institutions continue to equip successive generations with adequate tools to navigate village affairs and familial responsibilities. By the way, having survived assaults by religions of the books, these ancient institutions are now seemingly under renewed assault by NGOs with mindless missionary zeal.

Different yes. Unintelligent no.

“Western scholarship often assumes others’ lack of agency.”

An early girlfriend once mentioned matter-of-factly that one of her parents had albinism on their side. Which might mean she would have albino offspring were she to mate with someone with those genes on their side. She was majoring in Biology so I suppose she would know.

Food taboos serve a ritual purpose (by design or by accident) of reminding clansmen of their totem; after all people eat far more often than they marry. If one were to only occasionally be reminded of one’s clan name (like a few times in a lifetime that one actually marries – depending on how many cattle one can rustle up for another spouse), one may be liable to forget and accidentally marry one’s own kin!

It may still be dawn yet on the voyages of intellectual decolonization. Indeed, the original point of totem clan names was exogamic. I suppose exact familial relations would be hard to pin-point with sterile objectivity in a polygamous extended family setup where your mothers’ sisters are your “big” mothers or “small” mothers and likewise with your uncles; all this without yet taking into account your father’s other wives. Thus, there was a real risk of incest. So the main purpose of the institution was exogamy: to preclude closely related liaisons hence reduce cretinism.

I cannot but speculate, however, that a subordinate intention or consequence of totemism was the checking of albinism. In which instance it could be a curious case of ancient eugenics. Maybe we ain’t that different. Maybe we racist too. There might have been a time when we didn’t want to become white as Fanon has pointed out about us for this recent era.


BOOK REVIEW: Mumia Abu-Jamal And His Film Biographer Detail, And Damn To Hell, Amerika’s Eternal War Machine


Murder Incorporated: Empire, Genocide and Manifest Destiny.

Book Two: America’s Favorite Pastime.

Mumia Abu-Jamal and Stephen Vittoria. Foreword by S. Brian Wilson, Afterword by David Swanson.

Prison Radio, 504 pp. $27.

By Todd Steven Burroughs

WHO KNEW that Superman was once an anti-war socialist? In Superman No. 1, published by DC Comics in 1939, the Man of Steel stops a war in San Monte in South America by kidnapping the generals of both sides. He explains to them that their armies are only fighting to promote the sale of weapons, and the shocked generals shake hands. The fact that the two young American men who created Superman were conscious enough to put that in a comicbook that DC would publish shows how clear Americans were about the futility of war then. Then the Japanese detonate Pearl Harbor in December 1941, and Superman becomes thebiggest Allied bomb ever, and afterwards, a caped Cold Warrior in the 1950s who now unequivocally stood for “truth, justice and the American Way” (as opposed to the Soviet Communistic way).

The above might be the only anti-war pop-culture reference not mentioned by Mumia Abu-Jamal and Stephen Vittoria in their second joyful, playful act of political-literary defiance—an act of historical witnessing, using sweat to honor innocent blood that has filled history’s reservoirs.  This book, the first work of history this writer has ever read that had a “Get Smart” joke in it, is an American history of war devoted to two groups without guns or butter: the victims of war and those devoted to fighting it. As with their first volume, published last year,their clarity is extraordinary in its purity: President Lex Luthor is an “orange dumpster fire,” Barack Obama is “the white-coated waiter on the Pullman car of empire” who is guilty of conducting a “thuggish and criminal mugging” on Yemen using drones commanded by soldiers socialized to kill through U.S. military-consulted and -approved videogames, and American public life is captured by forms of propaganda as diverse as the Hollywood blockbuster Saving Private Ryan and TV pundit “military-academic complex.”

IS WAR NATURE or nurture? It seems a complicated answer, until the last century is analyzed and the story is told as to how America became unapologetic proponent of permanent war. Sometimes it seems that the authors have forgotten that war existed before the growth of the 20th century West and its eventual, post-World War II American coronation. Isn’t the human spirit naturally rebellious, and war just state-sanctioned rebellion? Perhaps, but Abu-Jamal and Vittoria spend at least two hundred pages talking about how for over a century the United States either set up wars or made sure war would happen in virtually every corner of the world. Even World War II—a war that is never seen in America’s historic popular culture as anything but inevitable–is not spared the pre-Pearl Harbor, what-if-this-action-or-that-had-been-acted-on scenario. They argue that war, not just land, became profitable in the 20th century, and the United States decided early on that it wanted the top sales numbers.

Here’s socialist-ish Superman’s point from the pre-U.S.-entry-into-World War II 1930s: “Under the heading of ‘love the one you’re with,’ these captains of industry, despite being [initially] rebuffed by FDR, were nevertheless finding buyers elsewhere. For years, Germany, Italy and Japan were aggressively building their own military-industrial complexes” with help from American industrialists. So, writes Vittoria and Abu-Jamal, “this allowed American munitions manufacturers, the aeronautics industry, as well as American industry up and down the assembly line to cash in all angles, enemies and allies alike.”

The best part of the book is the extended discussion of the birth and work of the Central Intelligence Agency, one of the greatest defenders of empire that has ever existed. Using a who’s who of the 20th and 21st century Left as sources, the authors unapologetically state that the United States, aided by the CIA, is guilty of making war into a science and business, serving the needs of war capitalists Superman openly talked against in 1939. So, decades later, when Indonesia invades East Timor in 1975 with America’s guidance, “(i)t was an invasion of the body snatchers. It was the British Empire colonizing and force-dividing India. It was the Euro-American Empire colonizing and force-civilizing the indigenous people of the Americas—chock full of the same religious fanaticism and xenophobic rage. And to accomplish a civilizing undertaking, the colonizer must first control the colonized population.”

Vittoria and Abu-Jamal connect dots in time and space, in thought and in act. The fact that the authors’ argument is politically simple doesn’t make it factually incorrect: America is indeed guilty of nurturing evil for decades around the world in the name of capitalism, White American Christianity, and a lust for oil and power. In the end, the book cares more about the development of empire technology and its evil use than debating the nature-nurture question.

From Julian Bond’s “Vietnam,” an anti-war comicbook published for Black people in 1967

THIS BOOK TRILOGY yearns to document America in ways that will never be examined by, or gain the approval of, say, The New Republic and MSNBC. Is this angry-but-funny book series the last gasps of dying Black Panther/SNCC/Weatherman political education classes, or future school texts for the next wave of Saul Alinksy disciples around the world? Revolutionaries are constantly at war with hegemony, after all, so oppression and injustice will never take a holiday, even with Luthor gone from The White House either next year or five years from now. No one can tell in June 2019, as Luthor seeks to reproduce its white, mucous-filled sludge and pour it all over brown people in American concentration camps.

This question can only be answered when Democratic Party hegemony reasserts itself in the White House, and then the offended folks, now relaxed and ready to enjoy the coming mid-21st century, will have the option to happily fade back to the complacency of NPR and Sunday New York Times.  Baby Boomers Abu-Jamal and Vittoria know the bloody, painful difference between a revolutionary and an activist, but who else does?

Meanwhile, away from that question, far from most of alternating noise and silence over the decades, one of the authors has been imprisoned from his arrest in December 1981 at the age of 27 to now 65—38 years, an entire adulthood and middle age gone. In his own never-ending-battle against fading like old, yellowing Philadelphia Tribune newspapers he wrote for in a city main library he probably used to go to, the prison writer finds himself in an interesting literary position: like Black sports icons Tiger Woods and Serena Williams, Mumia Abu-Jamal is only a few steps away from being framed again, but this time around the two Ls of legacy and legend.


Todd Steven Burroughs, Ph.D., is an independent researcher and writer based in Newark, N.J. He is the author of Warrior Princess: A People’s Biography of Ida B. Wells, and Marvel’s Black Panther: A Comic Book Biography, From Stan Lee to Ta-Nehisi Coates, both published by Diasporic Africa Press. His 2014 audiobook, Son-Shine On Cracked Sidewalks, deals with the first mayoral election of Ras Baraka, the son of the late activist and writer Amiri Baraka, in Newark. He is working on a journalistic, and, perhaps now, literary biography of Abu-Jamal.